Publications 1990-1997

Listed on this page are journal articles on mental models in reasoning prior to 1998 supplied by individual researchers
(originally posted on the former mental models website)

Ayton, P., & Hardman, D.K. (1997). Are there two rationalities? Current Psychology of Cognition, 16(1), 39-51.

Ball, L.J., Sutherland, E.J., & Quayle, J.D. (1997). Situating deductive competence within a models framework: Some further considerations. Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive-Current Psychology of Cognition, 16 (1), 52-62.

Bauer, M.I., & Johnson-Laird, P.N. (1993). How diagrams can improve reasoning. Psychological Science, 4, 372-378.

Bara, B. (1993). For a developmental theory of mental models. Behavioral and Brain Sciences , 16:2; 336

Bara, B. (1994). Developing induction. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 8, 1, 31-34

Bara, B., Bucciarelli, M., & Johnson-Laird, P.N.  (1995). The development of syllogistic reasoning. American Journal of Psychology, 108, 157-193.

Bara, B., & Bucciarelli, M. (1997). The reason we reason. Current Psychology of Cognition, 16, 1-2, 63-39.

Bibby, P.A. & Payne, S.J. (1993). Internalization and use-specificity of device knowledge. Human-Computer Interaction, 8, 25-56

Bonini, N., & Caverni, J.-P. (1995). The “catch all underestimation bias”: further experimental evidence about “availability” and “category redefinition” hypotheses. Current Psychology of Cognition, 14, 301-322

Butera   F., Legrenzi  P., & Oswald, M (Eds). (1997). Contexts and biases. Numéro spécial du Swiss Journal of Psychology. Berne: Hans Huber. Numéro 2.

Butera, F., Legrenzi, P. & Oswald, M. (1997). Is context a bias ? Swiss Journal of Psychology, 56, 59-61.

Butera   F., Legrenzi  P., Mugny  G. & Perez , J.A. (1991). Influence sociale et raisonnement. Bulletin de Psychologie, 45, 405, 144-154.

Butera, F. & Mugny, G. (1992). Influence minoritaire et falsification. A propos de “Quelques réflexions psycho-sociologiques sur une controverse scientifique” de B. Matalon. Revue Internationale de Psychologie Sociale, 5, 115-132.

Butera F. & Mugny, G. (1995). Conflict between incompetences and influence of a low-competence source in hypothesis testing. European Journal of Social Psychology, 25, 457-462.

Butera, F., Mugny G., & Legrenzi, P. & Perez, J.A. (1996). Majority and minority influence, task representation, and inductive reasoning. British Journal of Social Psychology, 35, 123-136.

Byrne, R.M.J. (1991). Can valid inferences be suppressed? Cognition, 39, 71-78.

Byrne, R.M.J. (1997). Cognitive processes in counterfactual thinking about what might have been. In D. Medin (Ed). The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, Advances in Research and Theory. Vol 37. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. pp. 105-154.

Byrne, R.M.J. & Handley, S.J. (1992). Reasoning Strategies. Irish Journal of Psychology, 13, 111-124.

Byrne, R.M.J. & Handley, S.J. (1997). Reasoning strategies for suppositional deductions. Cognition,  62, 1-49.

Byrne, R.M.J., Handley, S.J., & Johnson-Laird, P.N. (1995). Reasoning with suppositions.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 48A, 915-944.

Byrne, R.M.J. & Johnson-Laird, P.N. (1992). The spontaneous use of propositional connectives. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 45A, 89-110.

Caverni, J.-P. (1996). How to understand the processes underlying the so-called “preference reversal phenomenon” if there is any reversal phenomenon? Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 9, 111

Caverni, J.-P., & Rossi, S. (1997). A nice bit of scandal: about a disconfirmation bias in the Wason’s 2-4-6 problem. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 56(4), 239-242

Cardaci, M., R. Misuraca, & A. Gangemi (1995). Ragionamento deduttivo e Social Contract Theory. Un contributo empirico.  Rivista di Psicologia, n. 3

Cardaci, M., Gangemi, A., Pendolino, G., Di Nuovo, S. (1996) Mental Models vs integrated models: explanations of syllogistic reasoning. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 82, 1377-1378

Do, K.S. (1992). Verification of causal conditional statements.  Korean Journal of Experimental and Cognitive Psychology,  4, 127-139.

Evans, J.St.B.T. (1991) Theories of human reasoning: The  fragmented state of the art. Theory & Psychology, 1, 83-105.

Evans, J.St.B.T. (1993). The mental model theory of conditional reasoning: critical appraisal and revision. Cognition, 48, 1-20.

Evans, J.St.B.T. (1996). Deciding before you think: relevance and reasoning in the selection task. British Journal of Psychology, 87, 223-240.

Evans, J.St.B.T., Allen, J.L., Newstead, S.E. & Pollard, P. (1994). Debiasing by instruction: the case of belief bias. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 6, 263-285.

Evans, J.St.B.T., Clibbens, J. & Rood, B. (1995). Bias in conditional inference: Implications for mental models and mental logic. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,  48A, 644-670.

Evans, J.St.B.T., Clibbens, J. & Rood, B. (1996). The role of implicit and explicit negation in conditional reasoning bias. Journal of Memory and Language, 35, 392-409.

Evans, J.St.B.T., Ellis, C.E. & Newstead, S.E. (1996). On the mental representation of conditional sentences. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49A, 1086-1114.

Evans, J.St.B.T. & Over, D.E. (1997). Rationality in reasoning: The case of deductive competence. Current Psychology of Cognition, 16, 3-38.

Evans, J.StB.T., Over, D.E., and Manktelow, K.I. (1993) Reasoning, decision making and rationality. Cognition, 49, 164-187.

Evans, J.StB.T., Over, D.E., and Manktelow, K.I. (1993) Reasoning, decision making and rationality. Cognition, 49, 164-187.

Espino, O., Santamaría, C., García-Madruga, J.A. & Carreiras, M. (1997).  La activación de los términos durante la comprensión de proposiciones cuantificadas . Estudios de Psicología, 57, 3-14.

Fabre, J.-M., Caverni, J.-P., & Jungermann, H. (1995). Causality does influence conjunctive probability judgments when context and design allows for it. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 63(1), 1-25

Fabre, J.-M., Caverni, J.-P., & Jungermann, H. (1997). Effects of event probability and causality on the conjunction fallacy. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 56(2), 106-111.

Fairley, N. & Manktelow, K.I. (1997) Causal and conditional inferences : a comment on Cummins (1995). Memory and Cognition, 25, 413-414.

Gangemi, A., Chifari, A. Ottaviano, S. Cardaci, M.  (1997) M.A.R.E. (Multimedial Aided Reasoning Evaluation). Un sistema multimediale per la valutazione e la stimolazione delle abilità logico-cognitive del bambino. Bollettino di Psicologia Applicata, 221, 53-55

Garnham, A. (1993). Is logicist cognitive science possible? Mind and Language, 8, 49-71.

Garnham, A. (1994).  March of the models: Comment on “A model theory of induction” by P. N. Johnson-Laird.  International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 8, 37-39.

Gattis, M., & Holyoak, K. J.  (1996).  Mapping conceptual to spatial relations in visual reasoning.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 22, 231-239.

Girotto, V. (1994). Is the model theory of induction also a theory of inductive reasoning? International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 8, 41-43.

Girotto, V. (1995). Contextual factors on deontic reasoning, Thinking and Reasoning, 1, 333-339.

Girotto, V. (1995). Sur les fondements de la théorie des modèles mentaux: A propos de l’article de P. Oléron, L’Année Psychologique, 95, 707-715.

Girotto, V. (1997). Biases and rationality in propositional reasoning: A reply to Houdé and Moutier (1996). Current Psychololgy of Cognition, 16, 649-662.

Girotto, V. & Legrenzi, P. (1993). Naming the parents of the THOG: Mental representation and reasoning. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 46A, 701-713.

Girotto, V., Legrenzi, P. & Rizzo, A. (1991). Counterfactual thinking: The role of events controllability. Acta Psychologica , 78 , 111-133.

Girotto, V., Legrenzi, P. & Sonino, M. (1995). Ragionamento, decisione e teoria dei modelli mentali, Sistemi Intelligenti, 7, 477-500.

Girotto, V. , Mazzocco, A. & Cherubini, P. (1992). Judgements of relevance in deontic reasoning: A reply to Jackson and Griggs. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 45A, 547-574.

Girotto, V., Mazzocco, A. & Tasso, A. (1997).The effect of premise order on conditional reasoning: A test of the mental model theory, Cognition, 63, 1-28.

Goel, V., Gold, B., Kapur, S., & Houle, S. (1997).  The Seats of Reason:  A Localization Study of Deductive & Inductive  Reasoning using PET (O15) Blood Flow Technique.  NeuroReport, Vol. 8, No. 5, pp. 1305-1310.

Green, D.W.  (1993).  Mental Models: rationality, representation and process.  Behavioural and Brain Sciences,16, 352-353.

Green, D.W. (1994). Induction:representation, strategy and argument. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 8, 45-50.

Green, D.W.  (1995). Externalization, counter-examples and the abstract selection task. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Section A, 48A, 424-446.

Green, D.W.  & R. Larking. (1995).  The locus of facilitation in the abstract selection task. Thinking & Reasoning, 1, 183-199.

Green, D.W.  &  McManus, I.C.  (1995).  Cognitive Structural Models: perception of risk and prevention in coronary heart disease. British Journal of Psychology,  86, 321-336.

Green, D.W. (1996). Inferring health claims: a case study. Forensic Linguistics, 3, 299- 321.

Green, D.W.  (1997). Explaining and envisaging an  ecological phenomenon. British Journal of Psychology, 88, 199-217.

Green, D.W. (1997). Hypothetical thinking in the selection task: amplifying a model-based approach. Current Psychology of Cognition, 16, 93-102.

Green, D.W., Over, D., & Pyne, R. (1997).  Probability and choice in the selection task.  Thinking & Reasoning, 3, 209-235 .

Green, D.W., & Over, D.E. (1997). Causal inference, contingency tables and the selection task. Current Psychology of Cognition, 16, 459-487.

Hardman, D.K. (1996).  Mental models: The revised theory brings new problems. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 19(3), 542-543.

Hardman, D.K., & Payne, S.J. (1995).  Problem difficulty and response format in syllogistic reasoning. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 48A,  945-975.

Johnson-Laird, P.N. (1994).  A model theory of induction.    International Studies in the    Philosophy of Science, 8, 5-29, 1994.

Johnson-Laird, P.N. (1994). Reply to the commentators on a model theory of induction.     International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 8, 73-96, 1994.

Johnson-Laird, P.N. (1994). Mental models and probabilistic thinking.   Cognition, 50, 189-209, 1994. [Reprinted In Mehler, J., and Franck, S. (Eds.) Cognition on  Cognition.  Cambridge, MA:  Bradford Book, MIT  Press. pp. 171-191,1995.]

Johnson-Laird, P.N. (1997) Rules and illusions: A critical study of   Rips’s  ‘The Psychology of Proof’.  Mind and Machines, 7, 425- 432.

Johnson-Laird, P.N. (1997)  An end to the controversy?  A reply to  Rips. Mind and Machines, 7, 425-432.

Johnson-Laird, P.N. (1997)  Rationality, rules, and models:  A  comment  on Evans and Over.   Current Psychology of Cognition, 16, 56-73.

Johnson-Laird, P.N. & Byrne, R.M.J.  (1990).  Meta-logical problems: Knights, knaves, and Rips.  Cognition, 36, 69-81 .

Johnson-Laird, P.N., & Byrne, R.M.J.  (1991). Modelos mentales en el razonamiento deductivo.   Revista de Occidente, 119, 85-111.

Johnson-Laird, P.N., & Byrne, R.M.J. (1992). Modal reasoning, models, and   Manktelow and Over.   Cognition, 43, 173-182, 1992.

Johnson-Laird, P.N.., & Byrne, R.M.J.(1993). Precis of Deduction. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 16, 323-333.

Johnson-Laird, P.N.., & Byrne, R.M.J. (1993). Authors’ response: Mental models or  formal rules?  Behavioral & Brain Sciences,   16, 368-376

Johnson-Laird, P.N., & Byrne, R.M.J. (1994). Models, Necessity, and the Search for Counterexamples.   Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 17, 775-777.

Johnson-Laird, P.N., & Byrne, R.M.J. (1996)  Mental models and syllogisms.  Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 19, 543-546.

Johnson-Laird, P.N., & Byrne, R.M.J. (1996) A model point of view:   Comment on Holyoak and Cheng.   Thinking & Reasoning, 1, 339-350.

Johnson-Laird, P.N., Byrne, R.M.J., & Schaeken, W.S.  (1992). Propositional reasoning by model.   Psychological Review, 99, 418-439.

Johnson-Laird, P.N., Byrne, R.M.J., & Tabossi, P. (1992). In defense of reasoning:  A reply to Greene.  Psychological Review, 99, 188-190.

Johnson-Laird, P.N., Byrne, R.M.J., & Schaeken, W. (1994). Why models rather than  rules give a better account of propositional reasoning:  a reply t o  Bonatti, and to O’Brien, Braine, and Yang.  Psychological Review, 101,734-739 .

Johnson-Laird, P.N., & Savary, F.  (1996). Illusory inference about probabilitiesPsychologica, 93, 69-90

Johnson-Laird, P.N., & Shafir, E.  (1993).  The interaction between  reasoning and  decision making: an introduction. Cognition, 49, 1-9.

Klauer, K. C. (1994). Zur Modelltheorie des aussagenlogischen Schlussfolgerns: Zeitliche Faktoren beim Konstruieren und Anwenden mentaler Modelle [The model theory of propositional reasoning: Temporal factors in constructing and applying mental models]. Sprache und Kognition, 13, 1-26.

Klauer, K. C., Jacobsen, T., & Migulla, G. (1995). Counterfactual processing: Test of a hierarchical correspondence model. European Journal of Social Psychology, 25, 577-595.

Klauer, K. C. & Migulla, G. (1995). Spontanes kontrafaktisches Denken [Spontaneous counterfactual processing]. Zeitschrift fuer Sozialpsychologie, 26, 34-45.

Klauer, K. C., Oberauer, C., Rossnagel, C., & Musch, J. (1996) Mentale Bilder und mentale Modelle [Mental images and mental models]. Zeitschrift fuer Psychologie, 204, 41-54.

Klauer, K. C. & Oberauer, K. (1995). Testing the mental model theory of propositional reasoning. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 48A, 

Klauer, K. C., Stegmaier, R., & Meiser, T. (1997). Working-memory involvement in propositional and spatial reasoning. Thinking and Reasoning, 
3, 9-47.

Legrenzi, P., Butera, F., Mugny G. & Perez J.A. (1991). Majority and minority  influence  in  inductive  reasoning:  a  preliminary  study. European Journal of Social Psychology, 21, 359-363

Legrenzi, P., Girotto, V., & Johnson-Laird, P.N. (1993).   Focussing in reasoning and decision makingCognition, 49, 37-66.

Legrenzi, P., Politzer, G. & Girotto, V. (1996). Contract proposals: A sketch of a grammar. Theory and Psychology, 6, 247-265.

Light, P. H., Girotto, V. & Legrenzi, P. (1990). Children’s reasoning on conditional promises and permissions. Cognitive Development, 5, 369-383.

Lolli, G (1997). Logica e psicologia del ragionamento deduttivo.  Paradigmi 15, 44, pp. 219-32

Manktelow, K.I. (1997) Rationality and reasoning theory: the ever-elusive deductive component. Current Psychology of Cognition, 16,  147  -155.

Manktelow, K.I. & Over, D.E. (1991) Social roles and utilities in reasoning with deontic conditionals. Cognition, 39, 85-105.

Manktelow, K.I. & Over, D.E. (1992) Utility and deontic reasoning: some comments on Johnson-Laird and Byrne. Cognition, 43, 183-188.

Manktelow, K.I., Sutherland, E.J. & Over, D.E. (1995) Probabilistic factors in deontic reasoning. Thinking and Reasoning, 1, 201-219.

Markovits, H. (1993). The development of conditional reasoning: A Piagetian reformulation of the theory of mental models. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly: Invitational issue on the Development of Rationality and Critical Thinking, 39 (1), 133-160.

Markovits, H., Vachon, R. (1990). Conditional reasoning, representation and level of abstraction. Developmental Psychology, 26, 942-951.

Markovits, H., Venet, M., Janveau-Brennan, G., Malfait, N., Pion, N., & Vadeboncoeur, I. (1996). Reasoning in young children: Fantasy and information retrieval. Child Development, 67, 2857-2872.

Newstead, S.E. & Evans, J.St.B.T. (1993) Mental models as an  explanation of belief bias effects in syllogistic reasoning. Cognition, 46, 93-97.

Newstead, S.E., Pollard, P., Evans, J.St.B.. & Allen, J. (1992). The source of belief bias in syllogistic reasoning. Cognition, 45, 257-248

Ormerod, T. C. (1997). Rationalities 1 and 2: Dual processes or different task demands? Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive, 16, 181-189.

Ormerod, T.C., Manktelow, K.I. & Jones, G.V. (1993) Reasoning with three conditionals: Biases and mental models.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Vol. 46(4), pp.653-678.

Over, D.E. & Evans, J.St.B.T. (1997) Two cheers for deductive  competence. (Response to commentaries). Current Psychology of  Cognition, 16, 255-278.

Over, D.E. & Evans, J.St.B.T. (1997). The nature of mental  logic: A reply to O’Brien. Current Psychology of Cognition, 16, 813-822.

Over, D.E. & Manktelow, K.I. (1995). Perspectives, preferences, and probabilities. Thinking and Reasoning, 1, 364-371.

Over, D.E. & Manktelow, K.I. (1994). Induction and probability.  International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 8, 57-60.

Payne, S.J.  (1993). Memory for spatial mental models: an episodic-construction-trace hypothesis.  Memory & Cognition, 21, 591-603.

Payne, S.J. (1991). A descriptive study of mental models. Behaviour & Information Technology, 10, 3-21.

Payne, S.J., Squibb, H.R. & Howes, A. (1990).  The nature of device models: The yoked state space hypothesis and some experiments with text editors. Human-Computer Interaction, 5, 415-444.

Quelhas, A. C. (1990). Lógica, psicologia e psicopatologia.  Análise Psicológica,3 (VIII): 289-294.

Quelhas, A. C. (1991). O processo cognitivo no raciocínio condicional. Análise Psicológica, 3-4 (IX): 365-372.

Quelhas, A. C., Cláudio V. & Power, M. J. (1992). Raciocínio e esquecimento na depressão. Análise Psicológica, 4(X): 483-488.

Quelhas, A.C. & Gilly, M. (1996). Raciocínio condicional: Silogismos e tarefa de selecção. Análise Psicológica, 4: 533-552.

Quelhas, A. C. & Power, M. J. (1991). Raciocínio dedutivo na depressão. Análise Psicológica, 1(IX): 43-52.

Quelhas, A. C. & Ribeiro, O. (1993). O problema da instrução na tarefa de selecção de cartões. Análise Psicológica, 3(XI): 441-454.

Quelhas, A. C. & Ribeiro, O. (1993). Efeitos de conteúdo no raciocínio com silogismos condicionais. Análise Psicológica, 3(XI): 425-439.

Rauh, R., Schlieder, C., & Knauff, M. (1997).Präferierte mentale Modelle beim räumlich-relationalen Schließen: Empirie und kognitive Modellierung    [Preferred mental models in spatial relational inference: Empirical evidence and cognitive modeling].    Kognitionswissenschaft, 6, 21-34.

Richardson, J., & Ormerod, T. C. (1997). Rephrasing between disjunctives and conditionals: Mental models and the effects of thematic content. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 50A, 358-385.

Santamaría, C.; García Madruga, J. A. & Carretero, M. (1996):  Beyond Thematic Materials Effect: Reasoning from conceptual structures by mental models manipulation .  Memory & Cognition, 24(2), 250-261.

Santamaría, C.; García Madruga, J. A. & Carretero, M. (1996):  Connectives and content in the selection task .  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49A(3), 814-827.

Schaeken, W., Johnson-Laird, P.N., Byrne, R.M.J., & d’Ydewalle, G.   (1995).  A comparison of conditional and disjunctive inferences:   A case study of the mental model theory of reasoning.   Psychologica Belgica, 35, 57-70, 1995.

Schaeken, W.S., Johnson-Laird, P.N., d’Ydewalle, G. (1996).  Mental models and temporal reasoning.  Cognition, 60, 205-234.

Schaeken, W.S., Johnson-Laird, P.N., & d’Ydewalle, G. (1996).  Tense, aspect, and temporal reasoningThinking & Reasoning, 2, 309-327

Schaeken, W., & d’Ydewalle, G. (1996). Must reasoning. Acta Psychologica, 92, 209-220.

Schaeken, W., & Schroyens, W. (1997). Rationality in reasoning: The guideline for research on deductive reasoning. Current Psychology of Cognition, 16, 211-216.

Schroyens, W. (1997). Meta-propositional reasoning about the truth or  falsity of propositions. Psychologica Belgica, 37, 219-247.

Schroyens, W., Schaeken, W., & d’Ydewalle, G. (1996).  Meta-propositional reasoning with knight-knave problems: The importance of  being hypothesized. Psychologica Belgica, 36, 145-169.

Sperber, D., Cara, F. & Girotto, V. (1995) Relevance theory explains the selection task, Cognition, 57, 31-95.

Stevenson, R.J. and Over, D.E. (1995) Deduction from uncertain premises. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 48A, 613-643.

Thompson, V.A. (1994).  Interpretational factors in conditional reasoning. Memory & Cognition, 22, 742-758.

Thompson, V.A. (1995).  Conditional reasoning:  The necessary and sufficient conditions.  Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49, 1-60

Thompson, V.A. & Mann, J. (1995).  Perceived necessity explains the dissociation between logic and meaning:  The case of “only if”.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 21, 1554-1567.

Vandierendonck, A. & De Vooght, G. (1996). Evidence for mental model based reasoning: a comparison of reasoning with time and space concepts. Thinking and Reasoning, 2, 249-272.

Vandierendonck, A. & De Vooght, G. (1997).Working Memory Constraints on Linear Reasoning with Spatial and Temporal Contents.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 50A, 803-820.

Velasco, J. & García Madruga, J. A. (1997). El desarrollo de los procesos metalógicos y el razonamiento lógico. Cognitiva, 9(2), 139-158.

The aim is for this list to be a complete and accurate one. If you believe it omits some relevant references or contains inaccuracies, please add the details in a post on this site.

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